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American Railroads BIBLIOGRAPHY

© 2014, Robert E. Gallamore


Adams, Brock, A Prospectus for Change in the Railroad Freight Industry, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation, 1979.

Adams, Charles Francis, The Railroads – Their Origins and Problems, New York: G.P. Putnam’s and Son’s, 1878.

Allen, Cecil J., Modern Railways:  Their Engineering, Equipment, and Operation, London: Faber and Faber Limited, 1959.  

Allen, Roy A. and Robert E. Gallamore, “Freight on the Move: How Deregulation and Technology Transformed US Railways, International Railway Journal, Vol. 51, Issue 3 (March, 2011), pp. 37-41.

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), Keeping America Moving: Railroad Industry Perspectives – A Summary of Railroad Industry Major Concerns and Trends, October 1989.

Armstrong, John H., The Railroad: What It Is, What It Does, Omaha: Simmons-Boardman Books, Inc., Third Edition (1993) and Fifth Edition, (2008).

Association of American Railroads, A Chronology of American Railroads, Washington, DC: AAR Railway Information Series, LOC # A49-7570, July 1951.

Association of American Railroads, Policy and Economics Department, Railroad Facts, Washington, D.C., Annual Editions.

Association of American Railroads, Railroad Committee for the Study of Transportation, Transportation in America, Washington, D.C., 1947.

Association of American Railroads, Study of Merger Alternatives: Run Through Trains (Prepared by R. L. Banks & Associates), n.d.

Baldwin, Carliss and Sugato Bhattacharyya, Privatization by Auction: The Lessons of Conrail, Preliminary draft, Harvard Business School.  January 29, 1988. 28 pp.

Barber, Richard J.  (Presumed lead author), The American Railroads: Posture, Problems, and Prospects, Reprinted in U. S. Congress, Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce.   Congressional Symposium, Railroads – 1977 and Beyond: Problems and Promises, Washington: Government Printing Office.

Barber, Richard J., Railroads and Regulation: The Imperative Need for Change, Washington: Richard J. Barber Associates, 1979.

Basalla, George, The Evolution of Technology, Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Bereskin, C. Gregory, “Have Railroad Mergers Resulted in Cost Savings?  A Backward and Forward Looking Counterfactual Analysis,” Presented at the Second Conference on Railroad Industry Structure, Competition, and Investment, Transportation Center of Northwestern University, October 7-9, 2004.

Berndt, Ernst R., Ann F. Friedlaender, Judy Shaw-ER Wang Chiang, and Christopher Vellturo, “Cost Effects of Mergers and Deregulation in the U.S. Rail Industry,” Journal of Productivity Analysis, Vol. 4 (1993), pp. 123-144.

Bernstein, Marver H., Regulating Business by Independent Commission, Princeton: Princeton University Press. 1955.  

Bert, Art, Tim McDonald, and Tom Herd, “Merger Integration Takes Two.” Executive Agenda, A.T. Kearney, Vol. V, No. 2.  Fourth Quarter, 2002.  pp. 5-15.

Besanko, David, and Ronald R. Braeutigam, Microeconomics: An Integrated Approach, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2002.

Beshers, Eric W., Conrail: Government Creation & Privatization of an American Railroad, The World Bank, Report INU 38, March 15, 1989.

Bilz, Friedrich and Holger, Segerer, "A Decade of Three-phase AC Traction Technology for Diesel-Electric Locomotives in North America."  Translated from ZEV + DET Glassers Annalen 121(9)/1997 by Siemens AG Transportation Systems Group, 1998.

Bitzan, John D. and Theodore E. Keeler, “Enhanced Utilization of the Rail Freight Network:  A Benefit of Regulatory Reform” (August 2004):  (Unpublished)

Bitzan, John D. and Theodore E. Keeler, “Productivity Growth and Some of Its Determinants in the Deregulated U.S. Railroad Industry.”  Southern Economics Journal, submitted 2003.

Bitzan, John D. and Wesley W. Wilson, “Industry Costs and Consolidation: Efficiency Gains and Mergers in the U.S. Railroad Industry,” Review of Industrial Organization, Published Online, May 17, 2007 by Springer Science + Business Media, Vol. 30, pp. 81–105.

Bitzan, John, Railroad Cost Conditions – Implications for Policy, Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute, May 10, 2000.

Blaszak, Michael W., “Analyzing the Merger Puzzle,” in TRAINS, Vol. 65, No.7, (July 2005): 30-41.

Bleich, Alisa Levin, "Regional Rail Reorganization Act of 1973: Was Congress on the Right Track?," St. John's Law Review: Vol. 49: Issue 1, Article 5.  Available at: (1974)

Borts, George H., “Increasing Returns in the Railway Industry,” Journal of Political Economy,  Vol. LXII, No. 4. August, 1954.  Pp. 316-333, 1954.

Borts, George H., “The Estimation of Rail Cost Functions,” Econometrica, Vol. 28, Issue 1, 1960.

Bradley, Rodger, Amtrak: The US National Railroad Passenger Corporation, Dorset, England: Blandford Press, 1985.

Braeutigam, Ronald, “Learning About Transport Costs,” in Essays in Transportation Economics and Policy:  A Handbook in Honor of John R. Meyer, Jose Gomez-Ibanez, et al, eds. Washington DC:  Brookings Institution Press, 1999.

Braeutigam, Ronald R., Andrew F. Daughety, and Mark A. Turnquist, “A  Firm Specific Analysis of Economies of Density in the U. S. Railroad Industry.”  Journal of Industrial Economics, 33 (September 1984): 3-20.

Brandes, Ely M., Robert C. Brown, and Paul S. Jones, “Selected Impacts of Railroad Mergers,” Menlo Park, CA: Stanford Research Institute for the U.S. Department of Commerce, 1965.

Branscomb, L.M. and Klausner, R.D. (Committee Co-Chairs), “Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism,” National Research Council of the National Academies (7)  (2002): 210-237.

Breen, Denis A., “The Union Pacific/Southern Pacific Rail Merger: A Retrospective on Merger Benefits,” Review of Network Economics, Vol. 3, (September, 2004), pp. 283-322.

Brignano, Mary, and Hax McCullough, The Search for Safety: a History of Railroad Signals and the People Who Made Them, Commissioned by Union Switch & Signal Division of American Standard Inc., 1981.  

Bruce, Alfred W., The Steam Locomotive in America:  Its Development in the 20th Century,  (New York: Bonanza Books, 1952).

Bryant, Keith L. Jr., ed, Railroads in the Age of Regulation, 1900-1980, Encyclopedia of American History and Biography, New York: Facts on File Publications, 1988).  [See especially articles on Conrail, New York Central Railroad, Pennsylvania Railroad, and Penn Central, and biographies of Messrs. Crane, Fishwick, Perlman, Saunders, and Watkins].

Burlington Northern Santa Fe, Control and Merger, ICC, Decision No. 38, Decided August 16, 1995.

Burlington Northern Santa Fe, Quarterly Progress Report to the Surface Transportation Board, Finance Docket No. 32760, (Union Pacific Control and Merger of Southern Pacific), Jan. 18, 2000.

Burns, James B., Railroad Mergers and the Language of Unification, Westport, Connecticut: Quorum Books, 1998.

Burtt, Philip, Control on the Railways: A Study in Methods, London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1926.

Button, K.J. and D.A. Hensher, ed., Handbook of Transport Strategy, Policy, and Institutions, Chapter 27, London, Elsivier, 2005.

Cambridge Systematics Inc., National Rail Freight Infrastructure Capacity and Investment Study Report, Commissioned by the Association of American Railroads, (September 2007).

Campbell, E.G., The Reorganization of the American Railroad System, 1893- 1900, New York: Columbia University Press, 1938.

Canadian Pacific Consulting Services Ltd., Selected Studies on Conrail: Final Report Carried Out for USRA, February 1981, 64 pp. plus Appendices.

Candell, Amy B. and Joseph P. Kalt, Open Access for Railroads? Implications for a Non-Hub, Congestible Network Industry, Unpublished, May 2000, 33 pages.

Caves, Douglas W., Laurits R. Christensen, and Joseph A. Swanson, Productivity Growth, Scale Economies, and Capacity Utilization in U. S. Railroads, 1955-1974, Mimeo, January 1980.

Caves, Douglas W., Laurits R. Christensen, and Joseph A. Swanson, Productivity in U. S. Railroads, 1951-1974, Discussion Paper #7909, University of Wisconsin, April 1979.

Caves, Richard E., “Effects on Mergers and Acquisitions on the Economy: An Industrial Organization Perspective,” Cambridge: Harvard Business School Division of Research, 1988.  

Chandler, Alfred D., Jr., The Railroads and the Beginnings of Modern Management, in Harvard Business School Case 9-377-231, Boston: Harvard Business School, 1977.

Chandler, Alfred D., Jr., The Railroads: The Nation’s First Big Business (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1965).

Chapin, Alison and Stephen Schmidt, “Do Mergers Improve Efficiency? Evidence from Deregulated Rail Freight,” Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, Vol. 33, Part 2 (1999), pp. 147-162.

Chessman, G. Wallace, “Valuation Act of 1913,” in Encyclopedia of American Business History and Biography: Railroads in the Age of Regulation, 1900-1980, Keith L. Bryant, Jr. ed., New York: Facts on File Publications, 1988.

Churella, Albert J., Building an Empire, Vol. I., 1846-1917, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013.

Claes, Miriam, Cheril Santini, and Jeff Vergamini, The Liberalization of the European Railways, unpublished student manuscript for the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University, no date (circa 2004), 56 pages.

Clement, M. W., Carl R. Gray, George M. Harrison, B. M. Jewell, Ernest E. Norris, D.B., Committee on Public Relations of the Eastern Railroads, Yearbook of Railroad Information.

Coase, Ronald, “The Nature of the Firm,” Journal of Political Economy, 1937.

Conant, Michael, Railroad Bankruptcies and Mergers, From Chicago West 1975-2001:  Financial Analysis and Regulatory Critique, Oxford: Elsevier, 2004.

Conant, Michael, Railroad Mergers and Abandonments, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1964.

Congressional Budget Office, U.S. Congress, Railroad Reorganization: Congressional Action and Federal Expenditures Related to the Final System Plan of the U.S. Railway Association, Background Paper No.2, (Jan. 15, 1976).

Congressional Symposium, Railroads – 1977 and Beyond: Problems and Promises, Washington: Government Printing Office. 1977.

Consolidated Rail Corporation, A Freight System That’s Back on the Track, CRC Annual Report 1979.

Consolidated Rail Corporation, CRC Annual Report, 1983.

Consolidated Rail Corporation, Options for Conrail: Conrail’s Response to Section 703© of the Staggers Rail Act of 1980, April 1, 1981, Fourteen Chapters; Executive Summary bound separately.

Cottrill, K., “Stuck in the Fast Lane: Customs Hits Security Barrier,” Traffic World (Jan. 2004):  8-10.

Crane, L. Stanley, Rise from the Wreckage: A Brief History of Conrail, New York: The Newcomen Society of the United States, 1988.  44 pp.

Cronan, William, Nature’s Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West, New York: W. W. Norton, 1991.  

Crum, Michael R. and Benjamin J. Allen, 1986,  “U.S. Transportation Merger Policy: Evolution, Current Status, and Antitrust Considerations.”  Excerpt from International Journal of Transport Economics,   Vol. XIII, No. 1 – February 1986.

Crum, Michael, “A Critique of and Recommendations for the ICC’s Evaluation of Proposed Mergers.” ICC Practitioner’s Journal, Vol. 51, No. 4, May June 1964, pp. 368-390.

Cunningham, William J., The Present Railroad Crisis, Philadelphia: The University of Pennsylvania Press, 1939, p. 84 ff.

Dabney, W. D., The Public Regulation of Railways, New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1889.

Daggett, Stuart, Railroad Reorganization, New York: Houghton, Mifflin, Cambridge: The Riverside Press, 1908.

Daggett, Stuart, Railroad Reorganization, New York: Augustus M. Kelley Reprints. 1967.

Daniels, Winthrop M., American Railroads, Four Phases of their History, Princeton: Princeton.

Daughen, Joseph R. and Peter Binzen, The Wreck of the Penn Central, Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1971.

Davidson, Charles, and Lincoln Diamant, Stamping our History: the Story of the United States Portrayed on Its Postage Stamps, New York: Carol Publishing, 1990.

Davies, Hunter, George Stephenson: A Biographical Study of the Father of Railways, London: Purnell Book Services Ltd., 1975.

De Vany, Arthur S. and W. David Walls, “Open Access to Rail Networks,” Transportation Quarterly, Vol. 51, No. 2, Spring, 1997.

DeBoer, David J. and Lawrence H. Kaufman, An American Transportation Story, the Obstacles, the Challenges, the Promise, Chapter 3, “Railroads,” Greenbelt, MD: The Intermodal Association of North America, 2002.

DeBoer, David J., Piggyback and Containers, A History of Rail Intermodal on America’s Steel Highway, San Marino, California: Golden West Books, 1992.

Dennis, Scott M., “Economic Analysis of an End-to-End Railroad Merger, Transportation Research Record No. 1177, Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board, 1988, pp. 6-15.

Dettmar, Hank, “Is There Really a Funding Crisis,” Transportation Research Board, TR News, Vol. 198, September-October, 1988, pp. 11-14.

Ditmeyer, Steven R., Network-Centric Railroading Utilizing Intelligent Railroad Systems, 10th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, “The Future of Command … Control,” McLean, Virginia, June 13-16, 2005.

Dixon, Frank Haigh, Railroads and Government: Their Relations in the United States, 1910-1921, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1922.  [Regulatory cases, 1910 to 1916, and chapters on Federal Control and federal operation in the Great War, plus return to private operation.  Appendix II outlines the “Tentative Plan for Railroad Consolidation” as drafted by William Z. Ripley and altered by the ICC “to minimize dismemberment of existing lines.”]

Doherty, J. M., Diesel Locomotive Practice, London: Odham’s Press, Ltd., 1962.

Dow, Andrew, Dow’s Dictionary of Railway Quotations, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 2006.

Draney, John. Diesel Locomotives: Mechanical and Electrical Fundamentals, Chicago: American Technical Society, Publishers, 1954.

Dullum, J. & Kidd, B., “Technology Watch: Safer Skies,” Executive Agenda, Vol. V, No. 2, 59-65, (2002).

Eastman, Joseph B. (Federal Coordinator of Transportation), Regulation of Railroads, Document No. 119, 73Rd U.S. Congress, 2nd Session, January 11, 1934.  [Contains details of the Prince Plan.]

Ecklund, Jr., Robert B., and Robert F. Hébert, Secret Origins of Modern Microeconomics: Dupuit and the Engineers, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1999.

Ellis, David M., “Railroad Land Grant Rates, 1850-1945, The Journal of Land and Public Utility Economics, Vol. XXI, No. 3 (August, 1945), available from JSTOR.

Ely, James W., Jr., Railroads and American Law, Lawrence, Kansas: The University Press of Kansas, 2001.

Erickson, Thomas F., Jr., A Railroad Manifesto: Fifty Short Articles on Railroad Economics, Operations, and Management, Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, Inc., 2011.

Fair, Marvin L.,  “Railroad Mergers and the Public Interest,” Transportation Journal, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 5-15, 1966.

Farrar, Lynn, “Valuation of U.S. Railroads,” in Middleton, et al., Encyclopedia of North American Railroads, pp. 1075-1076.

Farrington, S. Kip, Railroading from the Head End, Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Doran & Co. 1943.

Farrington, S. Kip, Railroads of Today, New York: Coward McCann, 1949.   

Feldman, Emilie, Amtrak in Crisis, Cambridge: Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University; a case prepared for Professors Gómez-Ibáñez and Meyer, 2003.

Fellmeth, Robert, et al., The Interstate Commerce Omission, Ralph Nader Study Group Report on the ICC and Transportation, New York: Grossman Publishers, 1970.

Ferguson, Allen R. and L. Lee Lane, Transportation Policy Options: The Political Economy of Regulatory Reform, Washington: Public Interest Economics Foundation, (n.d., circa 1975).  

Fisher, Franklin M., A Priori Information and Time Series Analysis: Essays in Economic Theory and Measurement, Especially Chapter 6, “The Survival of the Passenger Train: The Demand for Railroad Passenger Service between Boston and New York” (pp. 118-148), Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Co., 1962.

Fleming, Alice, Highways into History, New York:  St. Martin’s Press, Chapter 7, “The Great National Turnpike” (1971).  

Friedlaender, Ann F. (Nan), The Dilemma of Freight Transport Regulation, Washington: The Brookings Institution, 1969.

Gallamore, Robert E., Railroad Mergers: Costs, Competition, and the Future Organization of the American Railroad Industry, Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Harvard University, 1968.

Gallamore, Robert E., “Perspectives and Prospects for American Railroad Infrastructure,” Infrastructure (Vol. 4, No. 3. - Summer), 1998, pp. 36-44.

Gallamore, Robert E., “Regulation and Innovation: Lessons from the American Railroad Industry,”  Chapter 15 in Gómez-Ibáñez, Tye, and Winston, eds.  Essays in Transportation Economics and Policy: A Handbook in Honor of John R. Meyer, Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, p. 493 ff., 1999.

Gallamore, Robert E., “Federal Railroad Administration,” in Middleton, et al, eds., Encyclopedia of North American Railroads, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2007.

Gallamore, Robert E., “Let’s Auction Off the Penn Central,” The Washington Star- News, August 5, 1973.

Gallamore, Robert E. and John C. Panzar, “When is Competition Not Good?  The Case of Compelled Access and Maximum Rate Regulation for Railroad ‘Captive Shippers’,” Second Conference on Railroad Competition, Pricing, and Investment, sponsored jointly by the Institut d’Economie Industrielle (Toulouse, France) and the Transportation Center at Northwestern University (Evanston, IL), held at Northwestern, November 2004.

Gallamore, Robert E., and Aaron J. Gellman, Confronting the Crisis: Today and Tomorrow in the Aviation Industry, Prepared for the Eno Foundation Conference on the Future of Aviation, Evanston, Illinois: The Transportation Center at Northwestern University, May 10-11, 2005.

Gallamore, Robert E., Patrick Lortie, and Jason Maga, Trouble with Trains: How the Union Pacific—Southern Pacific Merger Went Awry, Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University, Case 5-205-252, 2005.

Gallamore, Robert (Chair, Committee on Freight Information Systems Security), Cybersecurity of Freight Information Systems: A Scoping Study (Special Report 274), Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board, 2003.

Gallamore, Robert, “The Domino Theory of Airline Mergers,” Transportation Research Forum, Papers, 1969.

Gardner, John W. and Francesca Gardner Reese, Know or Listen to Those Who Know, New York: W. W. Norton, 1975.

Gaskins, Darius W., Jr., “Regulation of Freight Railroads in the Modern Era: 1970 – 2010,” Review of Network Economics, Vol. 7, Issue 4 (December 2008).

General Accounting Office, Railroad Revenues: Analysis of Alternative Methods to Measure Revenue Adequacy, Report RCED-87-15BR.

Gerhold, Dorian, Road Transport before the Railways: Russell’s Flying Waggons, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Global Logistics & Supply Chain Strategies Journal, Vol. 8, No. 1 (January 2004).

Goddard, Stephen B., Getting There: The Epic Struggle between Road and Rail in the American Century, New York: Basic Books, 1994.

Goldman, Sachs & Co., et al. Preliminary Prospectus Dated February 13, 1987 – 52,000,000 Shares Consolidated Rail Corporation Common Stock.  63 pp. plus Appendix.

Gómez-Ibáñez, José, William Tye, and Clifford Winston, eds., Essays in Transportation Economics and Policy:  A Handbook in Honor of John R. Meyer, Washington DC:  Brookings Institution Press, 1999.

Gómez-Ibáñez, José, "An Overview of the Options," Competition in the Railway Industry: An International Comparative Analysis, ed., José A. Gómez-Ibáñez and Ginés de Rus. Edward Elgar, 2006.  

Gómez-Ibáñez, José, and John R. Meyer, Going Private: The International Experience with Transport Privatization, Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 1993.

Gordon, Robert B., American Iron, 1607-1900, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.

Grant, H. Roger, Erie Lackawanna: Death of an American Railroad, 1938-1992, Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 1994.

Grant, H. Roger, Railroads and the American People, Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2012.

Grant, H. Roger, The North Western: A History of the Chicago & North Western Railway System, DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press, 1996.

Greiling, Keane, A., “Air Cargo Update: Forward to Security,” Traffic World  (March 8, 2004), pp. 21-23.

Grimm, Curtis and Clifford Winston, “Competition in the Deregulated Railroad Industry: Sources, Effects, and Policy Issues,” in Sam Peltzman and Clifford Winston, eds. Deregulation of Network Industries: What’s Next?,  Washington, DC: AEI-Brookings Joint Center for Regulatory Studies, 2000.

Grimm, Curtis, and Robert G. Harris, “The Effects of Railroad Mergers on Industry Productivity and Performance,” Transportation Research Board, Transportation Research Record No. 1029, 1985.

Grodinsky, Julius, Railroad Consolidation: Its Economics and Controlling Principles, New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1930.

Grosser, Morton, Diesel: The Man and the Engine, New York: Atheneum, 1978.

Haeg, Lawrence P., Harriman vs. Hill: Wall Street’s Great Railroad War, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

Haine, Edgar A., The Steam Locomotive, New York: Cornwall Books, 1990.

Hansen, Peter, “Six High-Tech Advances.”  TRAINS, Vo. 68, No. 11 (November, 2008), pp. 26-32.

Harbridge House, “The Impact of Selected Legislative Options on the Solvent Railroads,” (Unpublished, October, 1975).

Harr, John E., The Great Railway Crisis: An Administrative History of the United States Railway Association, Washington: National Academy of Public Administration, Mimeo, 1978; available on CD from NAPA, 760 pp.

Harris, Robert G. and Clifford Winston, “Potential Benefits of Rail Mergers: An Econometric Analysis of Network Effects on Service Quality,” The Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 65, No. 1 (Feb. 1983).

Haut, F. J. G., The Pictorial History of Electric Locomotives, New York: A.S. Barnes & Co., 1970.

Healy, Kent T., The Effects of Scale in the Railroad Industry, Yale University Committee on Transportation, New Haven: May 1961 [46 pp.].

Healy, Kent T., “The Merger Movement in Transportation,” American Economic Review, Annual Meeting, Proceedings, May 1962, pp. 436-449.

Healy, Kent T., Performance of the U.S. Railroads Since World War II: A Quarter Century of Private Operation, New York: Vantage Press, 1985.

Henderson, David R., ed., The Fortune Encyclopedia of Economics, New York: Warner Books, Inc., 1993.

Henry, Robert Selph, This Fascinating Railroad Business, Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1942.

Henry, Robert Selph, Trains, Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Streamlined edition, 1943.

Hertenstein, Julie H. and Robert S. Kaplan, Burlington Northern: The ARES Decision (A) and (B), Harvard Business School Case No. 191-122 and 123, 1991.

Hilton, George W.,  “The Hosmer Report: A Decennial Evaluation,” ICC Practitioner’s Journal, Vol. 39, Nov. 1969.  pp. 1486.

Hilton, George W.,  “What Went Wrong and What to Do about It,” TRAINS, Vo. 27, No. 3, 1967, pp. 36-45.

Hilton, George W., Amtrak: The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute, 1980.

Hilton, George W., The Transportation Act of 1958: A Decade of Experience, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1969.

Hofsommer, Don L., The Southern Pacific: 1901-1985, College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1986.

Holbrook, Stewart H., The Age of the Moguls: The story of the empire builders, the robber barons and the great tycoons… Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, 1953.

Hoogenboom, Ari, and Olive Hoogenboom, A History of the ICC, New York: Norton (1976).

Hoppe, Charles W.  “The Evolution of Eastern Railroads into Conrail: Balanced Rail Competition vs. Economic Reality,” Presented at the Lexington Group Annual Meeting, 1998.

Horton, George R., and L. A. Drewry, “Railway Mergers: Recent ICC Policy,” Traffic Quarterly, Vol. XXI, No. 1. 1967.

Huibregtse, Jon R., American Railroad Labor and the Genesis of the New Deal, 1919 – 1935, Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida, 2010.

Hymson, E. B., “A Critical Examination of End-to-End Mergers,” Unpublished, 17 pp., 1975.

Immel, Ed and Bill Burgel, “Rail Capacity in the I-5 Corridor.”  Presentation for the Standing Committee on Rail Transportation, San Diego, CA, Oct. 2004.

Interstate Commerce Commission, Rail Services Planning Office, Evaluation of the Secretary of Transportation’s Rail Services Report, Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, May 1974.

Interstate Commerce Commission, Rail Services Planning Office, Rail Merger Study: 1977 - 1978. 

  • Executive Summaries of Issue Papers – 30 pp.

  • Initial Paper

  • Study of Merger Alternatives: Run Through Trains (Prepared by R. L. Banks & Associates)

  • Issue Paper No. 7 - Alternatives to Merger - 65 pp.

  • Issue Paper No. 4 – Environmental and Community Impacts - 34 pp.   

  • Issue Paper No. 2 – Impacts on Other Carriers - 67 pp. with annotated Bibliography.

  • Final Report, Feb. 1, 1978 – 65 pp.

Interstate Commerce Commission, Burlington Northern, Inc. – Control and Merger – St. Louis – San Francisco Railway Company, Finance Docket No.28583 (Sub-No 1F), Served April 17, 1980.

Interstate Commerce Commission, Burlington Northern, Inc. and Burlington Northern Railroad – Control and Merger – Santa Fe Pacific Corporation and the AT&SF Railway Co., Finance Docket No. 32549, Decision No. 38, Decided August 16, 1995.

Itzkoff, Donald M., Off the Track: The Decline of the Intercity Passenger Train in the United States, Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1985.

Ivaldi, Marc and Gerard McCullough, “Density and Integration Effects on Class I U.S. Freight Railroads,” Journal of Regulatory Economics, 19:2 (161-182), 2001.

Ivaldi, Marc and Gerard McCullough, “Welfare Tradeoffs in U.S. Rail Mergers,” Stockholm School of Economics: Third Conference on Railroad Industry, Structure, Competition and Investment, October 20-22, 2005, Proceedings, 29 pages.  See also, Discussion Paper Series No. 5000.  London: Center for Economic Policy Research, 2005.

Jackson, Randy and Mike Triest, “TTCI: Tough Tests for High Tech Power."  Railway Age, January 1999: 55-58, 1999.

Jensen, Michael C., “Takeovers: Their Causes and Consequences” and F. M. Scherer, “Corporate Takeovers: The Efficiency Arguments,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol.2, No. 1, Winter 1988.  

Johnson, Emory R., The Railroads and Public Welfare: Their Problems and Policies, New York: Simmons- Boardman, 1944.

Johnson, Emory R. and Thurman W. Van Metre, Principles of Railroad Transportation, New York:  D. Appleton and Company, 1920.  “Railroad companies are coöperators and competitors.” p. 278.  [I had thought this brilliant summary had originated with Alexander L. Morton (1943 - 2013), but Johnson & Van Metre were prior.]

Jones, Eliot, Principles of Railway Transportation, New York: The MacMillan Co., 1924.

Jones-Lee, M.W., The Economics of Safety and Physical Risk, New York: Basil Blackwell, Inc., 1989.

Joy, Stewart, The Train that Ran Away: A Business History of British Railways, 1948-1968,  London: Ian Allen, 1973.

Kahn, Alfred E., The Economics of Regulation: Principles and Institutions, Volumes I, and II esp. Part II, Chapter 6, “The Role and Definition of Competition: Integration,” Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1988.

Keeler, Theodore E., “Railroad Costs, Returns to Scale, and Excess Capacity,” Review of Economics and Statistics, 61: 201-208.

Keeler, Theodore E., Railroads, Freight, and Public Policy, Washington, DC:  The Brookings Institution, 1983.

Kendrick, John W., Understanding Productivity: An Introduction to the Dynamics of Productivity    Change, Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1964.

Kerr, K. Austin, American Railroad Politics 1914-1920:  Rates, Wages, and Efficiency, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. 1968.   

Kessides, Ioannis N. and Robert D. Willig., Restructuring Regulation of the Rail Industry for the Public Interest,  The World Bank, Washington, D.C. 1995.

Kimura, Kenji, Performance of the U.S. Railroad Industry Since Deregulation, Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, Urban Planning Department, 1997.

Kitchenside, Geoffrey, and Alan Williams, Two Centuries of Railway Signalling, Sparkford, U.K.: Oxford Publishing Co., 1998.

Klein, Maury, Unfinished Business: The Railroad in American Life, Hanover, NH: The University Press of New England, 1994.

Klein, Maury,  Union Pacific: The Reconfiguration: America’s Greatest Railroad from 1969 to the Present, New York, Oxford University Press, 2011.

Kneafsey, James T., “Mergers, Technical Change, and Returns to Scale in the Railroad Industry,” Transportation Research Forum, Thirteenth Annual Meeting, 1972.

Kneafsey, James T.,  An Economic Evaluation of Mergers in the Railroad Industry –The C. & O. –B. & O. Consolidation: A Case Study,  Columbus: The Ohio State University, 1971.

Kolko, Gabriel, Railroads and Regulation 1877-1916, Princeton: Princeton University Press; New York: W.W. Norton, 1965.

Kratville, William W., ed., The Car and Locomotive Cyclopedia, (Sixth Edition).  Omaha:  Simmons-Boardman:  Section 4: 430-619, 1997.

Kurian, George T., Datapedia of the United States, 1790-2000, Lanham, MD: Bernan Press, (1994).

Ladd, Harry, U.S. Railroad Traffic Atlas, Orange, California: Ladd Publications, 1995.

Larson, Paul D. and H. Barry Spraggins, “The American Railroad Industry: Twenty Years After Staggers,” Transportation Quarterly, Vol. 54, No. 2, Spring 2000.

Latham, Earl, The Politics of Railroad Coordination 1933-1936, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959.

Laurits R. Cristensen Associates, An Update to the Study of Competition in the U.S. Freight Railroad Industry, Final Report, Prepared for the Surface Transportation Board, Washington DC, January 2010.

Lee, H. L. and Wolfe, M., “Supply Chain Security without Tears,” Supply Chain Management Review, January/February 2003, pp.1-11.

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Lindell, R., “Traffic nightmare: How the politics of terror impacts ground transportation, supply chains and the bottom line,” Evanston: Kellogg World’ 1-7 (MSWord doc), (2003, June 10)

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Loving, Jr., Rush, “The Prize.”  TRAINS, Vol. 66, No. 7 (July 2006).  pp. 30-39.

Loving, Jr., Rush, The Men Who Loved Trains: The Story of Men Who Battled Greed to Save an Ailing Industry, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006.

MacAvoy, Paul W. and James Sloss, Regulation of Transport Innovation, the ICC and Unit Coal Trains to the Eastern Seaboard, New York: Random House series in industrial economics, 1967.

MacAvoy, Paul W. and John W. Snow, eds., Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform, Ford Administration Papers on Regulatory Reform, Washington: American Enterprise Institute, [Ch. 3, “Intermodal and Intramodal Competition,” by the United States Railway Association, R.E. Gallamore, author], 1977.

Mansfield, Edwin, The Economics of Technological Change, New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1968.

Marre, Louis A., The Contemporary Diesel Spotter's Guide, Second Edition.  Waukesha, WI: Kalmbach Publishing Co., 1995.

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Marshall, John, Rail Facts and Feats, New York: The Two Continents Publishing Group, 1974, and The Guinness Railway Book, Enfield, Middlesex: Guinness Publishing, 1989.

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Martin, Albro, Railroads Triumphant: The Growth, Rejection and Rebirth of a Vital American Force, New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

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Meyer, John R., “Transportation: Economic Aspects,” International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, New York: The Macmillan Company & The Free Press, 1968.

Meyer, John R., Merton J. Peck, John Stenason, and Charles Zwick, The Economics of Competition in the Transportation Industries, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959.

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Morton, Alexander L., “Is there an Alternative to Regulation for the Railroads?  In James C. Miller III, ed., Perspectives on Federal Transportation Policy, Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1975.

Moulton, Harold G., Waterways Versus Railways, Cambridge, Mass.: The Riverside Press (Facsimile Edition), 1914.  

Muller, Gerhardt, Intermodal Freight Transportation, 4th Edition, Eno Transportation Foundation, Inc. and Intermodal Association of North America, Washington, D.C., 1999.

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Newman, Ronald R., Allan M. Zarembski, and Randolph R. Resor, "Economic Implications of Heavy Axle Loads on Equipment Design, Operations, and Maintenance," American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Rail Transportation Division, Volume 4, 1991.

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Olson, Sherry H., The Depletion Myth: A History of Railroad Use of Timber, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971.

Otis, F. N., Illustrated History of the Panama Railroad, Pasadena, California, Socio-Technical Books, 1971.

Owens, Harry P., Steamboats and the Cotton Economy, Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1990.

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Peck, M. J. and J. R. Meyer, “The Determination of a Fair Return on Investment for Regulated Industries,” in National Bureau of Economic Research, Transportation Economics, Special Conference 17, New York: NBER and Columbia University Press, 1965.               

Pegrum, Dudley F., Transportation Economics and Public Policy, Third Edition, Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, 1973.

Pendleton, John, Our Railways: Their Origin Development Incident and Romance, London: Cassell and Company Limited, 1894

Perl, Anthony, New Departures: Rethinking Rail Passenger Policy in the Twenty-First Century Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2000.

Pinkepank, Jerry A., The Second Diesel Spotter's Guide, Milwaukee: Kalmbach Publishing Co., 1973.

Pittman, Russell W., “Railroads and Competition: The Santa Fe/Southern Pacific Merger Proposal,” The Journal of Industrial Economics, Vol. XXXIX, No. 1, September 1990.

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Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976, 45 USC 801.

Rand McNally’s Handy Railroad Atlas of the United States, Chicago, 1973, 64 pages.

Ransome-Wallis, P., ed., The Concise Encyclopedia of World Railway Locomotives, New York: Hawthorn Books, 1959.

Ravenscraft, David J. and F. M. Scherer, Mergers, Sell-Offs, and Economic Efficiency, Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 1987.

Reck, Franklin M., On Time: The History of Electro-Motive Division of General Motors, Published by General Motors - EMD.  Chronology, 1948, pp. 181-184.

Reck, Franklin M., The Dilworth Story:  The Biography of Richard Dilworth, Pioneer Developer of the Diesel Locomotive, New York: McGraw Hill Book Co., 1954, pp. 103-105.

Reebie Associates,  An Economic Overview of The Consolidated Rail Corporation,  Greenwich, CT.  n.d., circa 1975.  Mimeo, ~80 pp.  Author’s Collection.

Resor, Randolph R., “Should Amtrak Survive as a National System,” Transportation Quarterly, Vol. 53, No. 1 (Winter, 1999).

Resor, Randolph R., James R. Blaze, and David W. Campbell, “The Shellpot Bridge:  A Public/Private Project that Worked,” In Proceedings of the Third Conference on Railroad Industry Structure, Competition, and Investment, Stockholm School of Economics, October 20-22, 2005.

Reutter, Mark., “The Life of Edward Budd, Part 2: Frustration and Acclaim,” Railroad History 173 (1995).

Richter, Amy G., Home on the Rails: Women, the Railroad, and the Rise of Public Domesticity, Chapel Hill and London: The University of North Carolina Press, 2005.

Ripley, William Z., Railroads: Rates and Regulation, New York: Longmans, Green and Co., 1912.  

Ripley, William Z., ed., Railway Problems, Revised Edition, Boston: Ginn and Company, 1913.  [Contains a reprint of Balthazar H. Meyer’s classic study of the Northern Securities Case, and Stuart Daggett’s definitive article on the dissolution of the Harriman system (with Ripley’s addendum summarizing its later history)].

Rockey, Craig, “Economic, Financial, and Political Factors Affecting the U.S.  Freight Railroad Industry,” Before Arbitration Board No. 570, Association of American Railroads, January, 2003.

Rolt, L. T. C., The Railway Revolution: George and Robert Stephenson, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1962.

Rose, Mark H., Bruce Seely, and Paul F. Barrett, The Best Transportation System in the World: Railroads, Trucks, Airlines, and American Public Policy in the 20th Century, Columbus: The Ohio State University Press, 2006.

Rosen, William, The Most Powerful Idea in the World, New York: Random House, 2010.

Runke, James F. and Norbert Y. Zucker, eds., Proceedings of the Regional Rail Planning Seminars, Fall 1976, Washington, D.C.: The Council of State Governments and the Federal Railroad Administration, 1976.  

Salsbury, Stephen, No Way to Run a Railroad: The Untold Story of the Penn Central Crisis, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1982.

Samuelson, Robert J., “Penn Central: The Road to Nationalization.”  The Washington Post, March 11, 1973.

Saunders Jr., Richard, Main Lines: Rebirth of the North American Railroads, 1970-2002, DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2003.

Saunders Jr., Richard, Merging Lines: American Railroads, 1900-1970, DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2001.  Chapters 10, 13, 14, and 15 relate to the rise and fall of Penn Central.

Saunders Jr., Richard, Railroad Mergers and the Coming of Conrail, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1978.

Savage, Ian, The Economics of Railroad Safety, Norwell, Massachusetts: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998.

Schmookler, Jacob, Invention and Economic Growth, Appendix C. "Important Inventions in the Railroad Industry."  Prepared by Heinrich H. Bruschke and Revised by Irwin Feller.  Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press: 1966, 269-278.

Schneider, Gregory L., Rock Island Requiem: The Collapse of a Mighty Fine Line, Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2013.

Schumpeter, Joseph A., Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy (3rd ed.), New York: Harper & Row, 1942.

Shedd, Tom and Robert Roberts, “Evolution of a New Railroad, Penn Central,” Modern Railroads, Vol. 23, No. 5 – May 1968), pp. 60 – 75.

Shepherd, William G., The Economics of Industrial Organization, 3Rd Edition, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1990.

Simat, Helliesn & Eichner, Inc., Competition in the Railroad Industry: A Policy Study, Prepared for the United States Railway Association, February 1975.  Appendix A, pp. 1 – 25, is an extensive annotated literature review containing references to published and unpublished reports on the subject.

Sloss, James, Thomas J. Humphrey, and Forrest N. Krutter, A Review of National Railroad Issues, “Chapter IV: Potential Impacts of Restructuring the U.S. Railroad Industry,” Cambridge, MA: MIT, 1975.

Sloss, James, Thomas J. Humphrey, and Forrest N. Krutter, An Analysis and Evaluation of Past Experience in Rationalizing Railroad Networks, Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Prepared for the U.S. Department of Transportation, 1975.

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Smiles, Samuel, The Life of George Stephenson and of His Son Robert Stephenson, New York: Harper and Brothers, Publishers, prefixed by a History of the Railway and the Locomotive, and an introductory “memoir” of Richard Trevithick, 1868.


Solberg, Carl, Conquest of the Skies, A History of Commercial Aviation in America, Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1979.

Solomon, Brian, “Consolidated Rail Corp. (Conrail).”  In Middleton, et al., eds., Encyclopedia of North American Railroads, Bloomington: Indiana University Press,  2007.  Pages 331-333.

Solomon, Brian, North American Railroad Family Trees: An Infographic History of the Industry’s Mergers and Evolution, Minneapolis: Voyageur Press, 2013.

Solomon, Brian, Railroad Signaling, St. Paul: MBI Publishing Co., 2003.

Spero, Herbert, Reconstruction Finance Corporation Loans to the Railroads, 1932-1937, New York: Bankers Publishing Company, 1939.

Steel Wheels Group of Santa Clara University for Prof. David Palmer, Fall 1996, Railway Freight: AU.S. Industry Analysis with a Focus on Union Pacific and Burlington Northern Santa Fe,  (Unpublished – Spiral Bound, 163 pages.

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Stigler, George J. and Manuel F. Cohen, Can Regulatory Agencies Protect the Consumer?, Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1971.

Stiles, Peter, The DuPont AEI Pilot – an Initial Customer / Carrier Application, Advantage Design, Inc., 1994.  Privately printed by Conrail and Union Pacific Railroads, 14 pp.

Stone, Richard D., The Interstate Commerce Commission and the Railroad Industry, New York: Praeger, 1991.

Stover, John F., American Railroads, Second Edition, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.

Stover, John F., The Life and Decline of the American Railroad, New York: Oxford University, 1970.

Stover, John F., The Routledge Historical Atlas of the American Railroads, New York: Routledge, 1999.  

Stretton, Clement E., The Development of the Locomotive, London: Bracken Books, 1989.

Strong, John, Consolidated Rail Corporation – 1984, Case Study prepared for the Kennedy School of government, Harvard University.  17 pp. plus appendices, 1984.

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Thompson, Gregory L., The Passenger Train in the Motor Age, The California Experience, 1910-1941, Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1993.

Thompson, Louis S.,  “New Rail Passenger Structures in the United States: Using Experience from the E.U., Japan and Latin America,” Toulouse, France: Institut d’Economie Industrielle and Northwestern Transportation Center, November 7-8, 2003.

TRAINS, Milwaukee: Kalmbach Publishing Co., (Monthly).  Almost every issue of TRAINS provides facts, photos, or features bearing on topics addressed in this book.  The “Map of the Month” feature is a frequent treasure trove, such as for example in Vol. 70, No. 11 (November, 2010), pp. 55-57, which provides a quick reference merger family tree with logos and consolidation dates for all Class 1 US and Canadian railroad systems.  

TRAINS, Railroad Maps: The Best from the Pages of Trains Magazine, Extra 2013),  Milwaukee: Kalmbach Publishing Co., July, 2013.

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Transportation Research Board of the National Research Council, Potential Impacts of Climate Change on U.S. Transportation, Special Report 290, Washington, D.C., 2008.

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U.S. Congress, Congressional Budget Office, unpublished analysis of two options for sale of Conrail, August 1986.

U.S. Congress, Congressional Budget Office. Railroad Reorganization: Congressional Action and Federal Expenditures Related to the Final System Plan of the U.S. Railway Association.  Background Paper No.2, Jan. 15, 1976.  Prepared by Dr. Porter K. Wheeler, and cited with his name.

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U.S. Department of Transportation, The Effects of the Regulatory Reform Provisions Contained in the Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976, Reprinted in U. S. Congress, Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, Congressional Symposium, Railroads – 1977 and Beyond: Problems and Promises, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1977.

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U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration, Recommendations for Northeast Rail Service, March 31, 1981.  Washington:  U.S. Department of Transportation.  Three chapters and appendices.  

U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration, Study of Federal Aid to Rail Transportation, Washington, D.C., January 1977.

U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration, Five-Year Strategic Plan for Railroad Research, Development, and Demonstrations, March 2002.

U.S. Department of Transportation, Secretary of Transportation’s “45 Day Report.”  Reprinted as Chapter 2 “The Northeast Railroad Problem” in Paul W. MacAvoy and John W. Snow, ed. Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform: Ford Administration Papers on Regulatory Reform.

U.S. Department of Transportation, Western Railroad Mergers, A staff study of the Office of the Secretary and the Federal Railroad Administration, Washington, D.C., 1969.

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U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce Report No. 725, 94th Congress, First Session, 1975.

U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, Compilation of Certain Railroad Laws Within the Jurisdiction of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 96th Congress, 1st Session, 1979.

U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, Railroad Deregulation Act of 1979, Hearings, 96th Congress, 1st Session, 1979.

U.S. House of Representatives, Staggers Rail Act of 1980, Report of the Committee on Conference on S. 1946, to Reform the Economic Regulation of Railroads, and for other Purposes.  Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1980.

U.S. Interstate Commerce Commission, Decision, Ex Parte No. 347 (Sub-No. 1) Coal Rate Guidelines – Nationwide, Decided: December 16, 1981.  See related filings dated 1982 in the continuation of the same proceeding, as detailed in footnotes infra.

U.S. Senate, Committee on Commerce, Committee Print, The Penn Central and Other Railroads.  Washington, DC: December 1972.

U.S. Senate, Committee on Commerce, National Transportation Policy: Report of the Special Study Group on Transportation Policies in the United States, Report No. 445, 87th Congress, 1st Session, Washington, Superintendent of Documents, 1961, pp. 229-230, 266.  Commonly known as the Doyle Report.

U.S. Senate, Committee on the Judiciary, Rail Merger Legislation, Part I, Hearings before the Subcommittee on Antitrust and Monopoly, Washington, D.C. 1962.

United States Railway Association and the Federal Railroad Administration, Joint Staff Report.  Alternatives for Conrail, September 1979. 115 pp.

United States Railway Association, Preliminary System Plan (two volumes), February 26, 1975.

United States Railway Association, Final System Plan (two volumes), July 26, 1975.

United States Railway Association, The Revitalization of Rail Service in the Northeast: The Final Report of the United States Railway Association, December 1986.

United States Railway Association, 1981 Conrail Performance Review, May 31, 1982. 47 pp.

United States Railway Association, An Evaluation of the Marketing and Competitive Aspects of Limited Access by Other Rail Carriers into Conrail’s Region, February 1980.  101 pp.

United States Railway Association, Comparison of Conrail with Ten Class I Railroads, 1977 – 1981,  April 4, 1983.  51  pp.

United States Railway Association, Conrail at the Crossroads: The Future of Rail Service in the Northeast.  April 1981.  Contains a dissent of the Department of Transportation and the Department of the Treasury from the decision of the USRA Board of Directors to recommend “Conrail 85-III” to Congress as the preferred structure for the Northeast going forward. 79 pp.

United States Railway Association, Conrail Profitability Determination,  June 1, 1983.  13 pp. plus appendices.

United States Railway Association, Cost and Productivity – Train & Engine Service: Conrail vs. Selected other Carriers – 1980, June 1981.  46 pp.

United States Railway Association, Federal Funding of Conrail: Rail Service Objectives and Economic Realities, December 1980.  57 pp.

United States Railway Association, NERSA Progress Report, Report No. 1.  March 4, 1982, 25 pp.  Report No. 4, April 12, 1983, 23 pp.

United States Railway Association, Report to Congress on Conrail Performance, 1977, May 31, 1978.  88 pp.

United States Railway Association, Report to Congress on Conrail Performance, May 31, 1981. 35 pp.

UPS, Supply Chain Solutions, Channels: Supply Chain Insights for Global Leader, Alpharetta, GA: Vol.8, No. 2, 2004.

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Vietor, Richard H. K., Contrived Competition: Regulation and Deregulation in America, Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1994.

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Welsh, Joe (with Jim Boyd and William F. Howes), The American Railroad, Osceola, WI: MBI Publishing Co., © Andover Junction Publications, 1999.

Weston, Gerald Alexander, The Workability of Intramodal Railroad Competition in the Western United States, Unpublished Ph. D. thesis for Washington State University, 1965.

Westwood, John, and Ian Wood, The Historical Atlas of North American Railroads, Edison, NJ: Chartwell Books, Inc., 2007.

White, John H., Jr., American Locomotives:  An Engineering History, 1830 – 1880,  Revised and Expanded Edition, Baltimore:  The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997.

White, Richard, Railroaded: The Transcontinentals and the Making of Modern America, New York:  W.W. Norton & Co., 2011.

Wiatrowski, Claude, Railroads Across America: An Illustrated History, New York: Crestline, 2012.  Appendix A lists historical societies and other railroad organizations, with web addresses.  Appendix B lists preserved railways, museums and historic sites, with addresses, telephone numbers, and web site information.

Williams, Daniel G., and Joseph J. Warren, “Amtrak Revenue Projections and Air Fare Sensitivity,” Transportation Quarterly, Winter 1997.

Williamson, O. E. “Economies as an Antitrust Defense: Welfare Trade-offs,” The American Economic Review, Vol. 58, pp. 18-36.

Wilner, Frank N., Amtrak: Past, Present, Future, Omaha: Simmons-Boardman Books, Inc., 2012.

Wilner, Frank N., Competitive Equity: The Freight Railroads’ Stake, Washington, DC: Association of American Railroads, February 1981.

Wilner, Frank N., Railroad Mergers: History, Analysis, Insight.  Omaha. Simmons-Boardman Books, Inc., 1997.

Wilson, Jeff, ed., The Historical Guide to North American Railroads, Third Edition, Waukesha, WI: Kalmbach Books, 2014.

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